GC

        

Gas Chromatograph Theory
Section 1: Theory and Instrumentation of GC Introduction

  • Basic principle
  • Aims and Objectives
  • Origins of Gas Chromatography
  • Why choose Gas Chromatography
  • Gas Chromatography Separation Mechanism
  • GC Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Typical GC Applications

Section 3: Band Broadening

  • Importance of Efficiency in GC Separations
  • Stationary Phase Mass Transfer
  • Mobile Phase Mass Transfer
  • Stationary Phase Film Thickness Effects
  • Column Internal Diameter Effects
  • Carrier Gas Flow Rate Effects
  • Effect of Carrier Gas Type on Efficiency

Section 5: Sampling Techniques

  • Sampling Techniques Overview
  • Manual Injection
  • Cold Needle Technique
  • Hot Needle Technique
  • Air Gap Techniques
  • Solvent Flush Technique
  • Automatic Liquid Sampling (Auto samplers)
  • Gas Sampling Devices
  • Purge and Trap Auto samplers (a)
  • Purge and Trap Adsorbents (b)
  • Thermal Desorption Auto samplers (TD)
  • Two Stage Thermal Desorption
  • Two Stage Desorption with Cold Trapping
  • Thermal Desorption - Important Parameters
  • TD Sorbent Selection and Applications
  • Solid Phase Micro extraction (SPME)
  • Important SPME Parameters
  • Headspace Sampling (HS)
  • Headspace Auto samplers
  • Headspace Calibration and Quantitation

Section 7: GC Columns Aims and Objectives

  • Open Tubular Capillary Columns
  • Comparison of Packed and Capillary GC
  • Columns
  • Chemistry Review - Analyte & Stationary
  • Phase Polarity
  • Dispersive Interactions
  • Stationary Phase Selection
  • Stationary Phase Selection Summary
  • Stationary Phases for Packed Column GC
  • Column Dimensions - Length
  • Column Dimensions - Internal Diameter
  • Column Dimensions - Film Thickness (df)
  • Phase Ratio (ß)
  • Carrier Gas Flow Rate
  • Column Bleed
  • Column Installation & Conditioning
 
Section 2: Chromatographic Parameters
  • Chromatographic Resolution (Rs)
  • The Resolution Equation
  • Retention Factor (k)
  • Selectivity (Separation) Factor
  • Efficiency
  • Resolution
  • Peak Asymmetry

Section 4: Gas Supply and Pressure Control

  • Gases required for GC
  • Gas Supply Management
  • Quality of Gas Supply
  • Gas Generators - Using Hydrogen in the Lab
  • Manual Pressure Control
  • Electronic Pressure Control
  • Pressure/ Flow Programming

Section 6: Sample Introduction

  • GC Inlet Systems
  • Spilt / Split less Inlet
  • Spilt Injection
  • Setting the Split Ratio
  • Sample Discrimination
  • Injection Volume
  • Optimizing Injection Volume
  • Split Injection - Experiments
  • Spilt less Injection

Section 8: GC Temperature Programming

  • The Role of Temperature in GC Separations
  • Isothermal and Gradient Temperature GC
  • Theory of Temperature Programmed GC
  • Using and Developing Temperature Programs
  • Predicting Isothermal Conditions
  • Optimizing Isothermal Conditions
  • Initial Temperature and Hold Time
  • Adjusting the Ramp Rate
  • Final Temperature and Time

Section 9: GC Detectors

  • GC Detectors Overview
  • GC Detectors - Characteristics
  • The Flame Ionisation Detector
  • FID - Operating and Optimizing
  • FID - Uses and Performance
  • The Nitrogen Phosphorous Detector (NPD)
  • The Electron Capture Detector (ECD)
  • The Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD)
  • Other GC Detectors

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